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German linguistics can also be found in Briel, Field Studies, the CUTG conference proceedings English-speaking Germanists will rejoice at the second edition of A. Fox's .. mentalen Lexikons am Beispiel der Autobezeichnungen im Deutschen', Sozialisation und Formen der Gewalt gegen Frauen im 'Nibelungenlied'.
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When the mature Feirefiz returns in Book XV, Wolfram can hardly find words to describe him and his richly decorated clothing and armor. As if his personal appearance were not enough to mark him out, Feirefiz comes with twenty-five armies from such disparate places that no army understands the language of the other.

And there are seemingly no limits to the exotic names in the long list of kings and princes and their lands that Feirefiz has conquered , 1— As we have seen, the broad outline of the contents of Parzival suggests a linear development, with the core of the poem the progress of the young Parzival to his destined status as Grail King.

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Yet there are other ways of seeing this structure, for it is framed by the story of Gahmuret and his son Feirefiz, and contains the parallel narrative devoted to Gawan. Already one can identify three separate areas: the Grail kingdom, the Arthurian world, and the broad reaches of the Saracen world. It is a major achievement that Wolfram shows the distinctions among these three, while showing also their interrelationship. Significant single themes unite them: chivalry, religion, love and kinship.

Parzival can be seen from the point of view of his genetic inheritance. His father was devoted to fighting and traveled the world to find adventure in the service of the most powerful ruler. At a crucial point in his progress, when he has just met the pilgrims, the Grey Knight and his beautiful daughters, and been deeply moved by their devotion and their compassion, Parzival is stirred by thoughts of God and at last undergoes a spiritual change that will make him susceptible to the influence of his maternal uncle, the hermit Trevrizent.

His manly discipline enjoined modesty and compassion in him. Since young Herzeloyde had left him a loyal heart, remorse now began to stir in it.

Only now did he ponder Who had brought the world into being, only now think of his Creator, and how mighty He must be. That Parzival is a knight, by birthright and by inclination, is important, and he progresses towards a true understanding of his chivalrous calling. The identification of many common factors in such literature runs the risk of diminishing it, however, and what is remarkable about the abundance of chivalrous romance in German is its variety and the potential it showed for individual treatment.

Nowhere is this potential more fully realized than in Parzival, where the man who is the knight par excellence is also first and foremost an exemplary human being. He eventually reaches the successful culmination of his Grail quest by means of error and misjudgment, alleviated by personal effort and the Grace of God. There is a sharp contrast between the careers of Parzival and Gawan.

In his desire to become the best knight, he sins, unwittingly and repeatedly, and he cannot achieve his destiny by virtue of his own strength alone. He does get into difficult situations and becomes involved in some hair-raising adventures, but, by adhering to the ideals of knighthood, he succeeds, in the more limited sphere that is his rightful domain. He serves several purposes in the narrative: as a foil to Parzival, to provide a certain amount of light relief, and to demonstrate the courtly norm, from which Parzival so significantly departs.

This is a man who stumbles and falls, as he makes his often clumsy way through his early life. In his ignorance and inexperience he leaves a trail of suffering behind him: his mother dies immediately after he leaves her, Jeschute must confront the accusations of her husband, Ither lies slain and the ladies weep for him, Gurnemanz and Liaze and their whole household are disappointed by his departure.

Above all, Anfortas is not healed by the guest who has been so enthusiastically heralded and so warmly welcomed: the Grail kingdom is, if anything, more bereft than ever when Parzival has passed that way, yet not fulfilled the expectations of his visit. When Sigune learns of his failure to express concern for the suffering of Anfortas, her anguish is increased to the level of total despair and she bitterly rejects the possibility that he could ever make amends , 24— Parzival is a man beset by doubts.

Even in his apparently blissful marriage with Condwiramurs, he senses a lack of something that he can express only in his desire to see how his mother is faring, though the listeners know that she is long since dead, or — less tangibly — in his craving for adventure. Whom does the Grail serve? This fighting will settle for nothing less than death and loss of joy.

It describes two great battles between Christians and Saracens, in the first one of which Guillaume Willehalm loses his entire army, but returns with fresh forces to defeat the enemy decisively and put them to flight in a second battle. The initial reason for the battles is quite clear. In the course of earlier combat Willehalm had been taken prisoner by the Saracens and, during his captivity, become acquainted with Arabel, daughter of the great ruler Terramer and wife of the Saracen King Tybalt.

Willehalm loses all his men but evades the Saracens, slipping away from Orange and leaving Giburc to defend the castle, while he goes to Munleun Laon to seek help from King Loys Louis the Pious , son of Charlemagne. Willehalm is a very different kind of work from Parzival. It does not show the linear development that we have seen in Parzival but is based rather on a number of larger problematic themes that recur throughout the poem. It seems appropriate, therefore, to consider some of these larger complexes, rather than go into detail about the events of the poem.

Although this poem is, on the surface, like its source, it becomes obvious that it is not just a Christians versus Saracens tale from which the Christians emerge victorious. After all, Willehalm is St. William, the patron saint of knights 3, 12—17; 4, 2—18 , who, according to legend, founded and entered a monastery after defeating the Saracens and who can be relied upon to help knights in need.

There is no question that Christianity is the true religion, but in the figure of Giburc contradictions appear that problematize that assumption. She belongs to both sides, as indicated by her very name: Arabel-Giburc. She is related by birth to the Saracens, yet she is a Christian, married to Willehalm. Yet Giburc is unswerving in her faith in the Christian God. This reflects in part the Saracen view of Christianity. The second is in the form of a debate on religion by Giburc, standing on the battlements with her besieging father below, and it affirms the Christian point of view , 10—, Giburc stresses the power of God the Creator and Sustainer, through whose sacrifice on the Cross mankind has been redeemed from sin and saved from eternal damnation.

Her words are, in a way, a Christian catechistic text. We sense that the talking has been going on for some time when Wolfram states that Terramer was using now threats, now cajolery to persuade Giburc to recant, and indeed we hear him presenting her with a choice of three methods of execution , 22— The problem of religion goes even deeper just before the second battle, when Giburc stands up at the end of the council of war, during which the Christian leaders have recounted atrocities by the Saracens and affixed crosses to their armor.

She expresses the view that the Saracens are also children of God and that we were all heathens once. There Gahmuret has no problem in overcoming his initial aversion when he witnesses the grief of Belakane as she recounts the death of her lover Isenhart P 28, 10— The Baruc of Baldac may not know the significance of the Cross but he respects its role in the faith of his friend Gahmuret when he places it on the elaborate tomb he has erected in his memory P , 7— Feirefiz may be black and white checked, and he may call on a disparate array of Saracen gods in time of need, but he is still the only match for Parzival when it comes to combat, and, more than that, it is he whom Parzival chooses to accompany him to the Grail P , The image of the Saracens themselves is another large issue in Willehalm.

If one counts one language for one country, then Terramer has troops from sixty of the seventy-two lands on the earth. In only twelve is Christian baptism observed 73, 7— Like their languages, the Saracens are a diverse assemblage of peoples, and Wolfram seems to have had many sources, including his own imagination, for his description of them. Some wear armor like the Christians, others wear turbans instead of helmets; at least one group is led by Gorhant from Ganjas, and these are covered with horny skin; they fight on foot with steel maces and have no human voice, but howl like hunting dogs or low like cattle 35, 10— The concept of chivalry among the Saracens and the Christians is something of a problem.

Both sides are fighting for Love and the reward of women. Each side is defending its faith, and there is little difference so far as this life is concerned. The Christians, however, are fighting for the reward of salvation in the next. The Saracens have no such hope. Nevertheless, the Saracens are at least as chivalrous as the Christians.

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They have the same desirable qualities: knightly reputation, generosity, honor, loyalty, noble upbringing, courage. In fact, the gods are mere idols, and they defend them, but the secular reward of Love has become almost a religion of Love for the Saracens and a motivation for their chivalry. The praise Wolfram gives to two Saracens who are killed in the first battle shows how problematic this depiction of the Saracens can be. The second example is King Tesereiz, a nephew of Terramer, of whom Wolfram observes that any knight who possessed his qualities would receive the love of ladies as a reward for his lofty deeds.

First we should note that, as in Parzival, almost all the participants are related in some way. On the Christian side there is Willehalm and his family, including, by marriage, King Loys, from whom Willehalm eventually secures help in raising an army to fight the Saracens and free the embattled Giburc. On the Saracen side is the huge family of Terramer with his twelve sons and various other relatives. The marriage between Arabel-Giburc and Willehalm is the connecting link, or, perhaps more correctly, the point of dispute, and the first battle is fought ostensibly to reclaim Giburc for the Saracens, or to kill her as revenge for her defection.

Much of the bitterness and pain on both sides is caused by the loss of many relatives in the first battle, as Willehalm states and restates in the period between the two battles. The remark, trivializing as it may seem to be, hints at some of the problematic aspects of family relationships in Willehalm. From the beginning of the work, Willehalm and his brothers have a family problem.

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Their father, Heimrich, disinherited all of them in favor of a godchild and advised them to seek their fortune at the court of Charlemagne. This they do and become powerful lords in the politics of the Empire, but apparently they have had only sporadic contact over the years with their parents, or with one another for that matter. In fact he is shunned. This arouses his anger, because, as a margrave, he had been entrusted with the march Provence to protect the land from Saracens attack, and he had done so successfully for seven years without asking for help , 4— His uncourtly appearance in Laon disturbs the pleasureloving atmosphere inside.

His sister, the Queen, recognizes him, knows why he is there and orders that he be locked out. On the next day, Willehalm goes into the castle and sits down with his sword across his knees, threatening the cowardly king and waiting in uncertainty for his father to arrive.


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When his father, mother and brothers arrive, the King duly receives them, and Willehalm gambles that this is his opportunity to make his point before the King, hoping that his family will support him. Willehalm forgets himself, seizes her crown from her head and hurls it to the ground, snatching her by her braids. Only the intervention of his mother, Irmschart, prevents him from cutting off her head. The Queen flees to her chamber, leaving the court stunned by this uncontrolled display by one who, as the King is quick to point out, is a vassal.

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Willehalm, close to despair now, believes that his family will not support him, but his father assures him that they will do so, when he appeals to him in the name of the Trinity to acknowledge him as his son , 19— Despite the shock of this episode, it appears that, for the time being at least, family relationships on the Christian side are less problematic than they appeared to be. However, the related theme of the Empire has not yet been addressed.

After the Queen has fled, Willehalm recounts before the court the extent of his losses in the first battle, reporting that all of the family members who had fought on his side have either been killed or taken prisoner. They join him in lamentation for their loss and the immense pain he has suffered, especially through the deaths of the young knights Mile and Vivianz, as well as for his anguish in leaving Giburc besieged in Orange.

Another central issue, which can be described as a problematic complex, is concerned with the young giant Rennewart, and it also has to do with family relationships and, since Rennewart is a Saracen, with religion.

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Unable to persuade Rennewart to accept baptism, he has assigned him to the demeaning role of kitchen boy. Willehalm watches as some young squires torment Rennewart, and, sensing that the boy must be of noble Saracen lineage, persuades the King to allow him to assume responsibility for him.


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Rennewart is a mass of contradictions. He is a Saracen who cannot accept Christianity. He is angry with his family for having abandoned him, as he believes, and he is willing to fight against the Saracens on the Christian side. His innate nobility means that he wants desperately to escape from his demeaning circumstances at the French court, not least because he is in love with the Princess Alyze, but dares not reveal his love until he has established his reputation as a knight.